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A load flow study is used to develop and evaluate actual steady-state power system operating conditions in order to evaluate bus voltage profiles, real and reactive power flow, and losses.
Optimize Power demand
Ensuring Safe Operation of the Power System

filter_1 Identification of under-loaded and overloaded equipment.

filter_2Increased reliability of generation, distribution and transmission.

Reduced power losses
Protect Your Facility From Power Outages

filter_1Optimal loading conditions and effective voltage regulation.

filter_2Reduction in power losses and operation costs.

Load Flow Steps

The study of load flow involves the following three steps:

doneModeling of power system components and network.

doneDevelopment of load flow equations.

doneSolving the load flow equations using software techniques.

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Methods for Performing Load Flow Study

A load flow calculation is used to evaluate the state of a system for a given load and generation distribution. As the network distribution will vary noticeably during different time periods, it may be required to perform several load flow solutions pertaining to peak, light and average loading conditions.

These solutions will be used to define either optimal operating modes for normal conditions or how the system will respond to abnormal conditions.The solutions to these equations are then evaluated using iterative techniques like:

doneNewton Raphson

doneJacobian Matrix

doneGauss-Seidel method

Newton raphson methodJacobiab matrixGauss shiedel method

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AllumiaX, LLC is a Seattle based Engineering company and leader in Industrial & commercial power systems and Serving WA, CA, OR, CO, TX, HI, MA, UT, ID, AZ. We believe in a long term relationship with our customers, procuring the most skilled specialists and staff with a solid strength in power system analysis. AllumiaX can take care of your power systems studies compliant with latest industry standards. Contact us for your facility today!

Our Approach

We also perform Power Flow study on the latest version of ETAP. In doing this, our efficient power systems engineers builds a network of nodes interconnected by admittances (impedances). In defining nodes in a software model, we consider the following input data


For PQ buses (Load Buses)

Real power (generation and demand)

Reactive power (generation and demand)

For slack bus (Swing Bus)

Voltage magnitude (usually 1 per unit)

Voltage Angle (specified to be zero)

Real power (demand),

Reactive power (demand)

For PV buses (Generator Buses):

Real power (generation and demand)

Reactive power (demand)

Voltage magnitude


Transmission lines



Capacitance (can be negligible)


Winding resistances on low and high voltage side

Leakage reactance on low and high voltage side

Magnetization reactance & Iron loss admittance


Load Flow Analysis

To begin the Voltage Stability Analysis of a power system, computation of the complex voltages at all the buses is essential. After this, power flows from a bus and the power flowing in all the transmission lines are to calculate. A computational tool for this purpose is Load Flow Analysis. This analysis helps compute the steady state voltage magnitudes at all the buses, for a particular load condition. Load flow is mainly used in planning studies, for designing a new network or expansion of an existing one. The next step would be to compare the calculated values of power flows and voltage with the steady state device limits, to estimate the health of the network.

Load Flow Study

Study Outcomes & Recommendations

Reliability of proposed generating station, substation and new transmission lines will increase

Enhancements to the facility through adjustments in system voltage levels and conductor sizes

Identification of the under/over loaded equipment 

Overall system operation costs are expected to decrease

Significant decrease in the system line losses

Optimal loading conditions through recommended tap settings for each transformer

Effective voltage regulation of the system through recommended governor set points


Providing you the best range of LOAD FLOW Calculations


Study Deliverables

An accurate facility model in modern power systems software

Comprehensive load flow parameters for each electrical point in the system

Evaluation of the general performance of the system under normal and emergency conditions

Solutions for optimal power flow throughout the network

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Recommendations for the minimization of line losses

Comprehensive load flow parameters for each electrical point in the system

Calculations of the steady state voltages, phase angles and power flows to and from each bus

Recommendations for the mitigation of overloaded & underloaded conditions